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How does a capacitor work ??

In this video, how does a capacitor works and how the energy is stored in the capacitor is explained intuitively.
At the latter part of the video, the factors which affect the capacitance has been also discussed.

How does a capacitor work?

A capacitor consists of two conducting plates which are separated by the dielectric material. When the voltage is applied between the two terminals of the capacitor then electrons on the one plate will get attracted towards the positive terminal of the battery and through the negative terminal of the battery electrons are pushed towards the second plate.
Because of the dielectric material in between the two plates, electrons are not able to cross the dielectric barrier.
So, over the period of time one plate develops positive charge (Shortage of electrons) and the other plate develops the negative charge. (Excess of electrons)
And in this way, the charge is stored on the two plates. Because of these charges, the potential difference is generated between the two plates and in turn, an electric field is developed between the two plates.
So, in this way, the energy is stored across the capacitor in the form of electrostatic field (because of the charges at two plates)


The ability of the capacitor to store the charge is defined as the capacitance.

Factors affecting the capacitance:

1) Area of the plates
2) The distance between the two plates of the capacitor
3) The permittivity of the dielectric material

Timestamps for the different topics covered in the video is given below:

0:12 How does a capacitor works? (Charging and Discharging of the capacitor)

5:46 Factors affecting the capacitance of the capacitor

This video will be helpful to all students of science and the engineering in understanding the working principle of the capacitor.


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